Yes, the addition of fluoride to drinking water has greatly improved the dental health of American consumers the normal fluoride residual in our water is 1.0 milligrams per liter.
Many water treatment facilities use filtration to remove remaining particles form the water supply. Those particles include clays and silts, natural organic matter, precipitants from other treatment processes in the facility, iron and manganese, and microorganisms. Filtration clarifies water and enhances the effectiveness of disinfection.
Water suppliers use a variety of treatment processes to remove contaminants from drinking water. These individual processes may be arranged in a “treatment train” to remove undesirable contaminants from the water. The most commonly used processes include filtration, flocculation, sedimentation, and disinfection. Some treatment trains also include ion exchange and adsorption. A typical water treatment plant would have only the combination of processes needed to treat the contaminants in the source water used by the facility.
Water utilities forecast water source availability, growth in population, and water demand to ensure adequate future water supplies during normal conditions and periods of drought. When water shortages are predicted or experienced, water utilities have many options for conserving water. Temporary cutbacks or permanent operating adjustments can help conserve water.
Permanent conservation measures may include:
Subsidizing use of water-efficient faucets, toilets, and showerheads
Public education and voluntary use reduction
Billing practices that impose higher rates for higher amounts of water use
Building codes that require water-efficient fixtures or appliances
Leak detection surveys and meter testing, repair, and replacement
Reduction in use and increase in recycling of industrial water.
Temporary cutbacks may include:
Reduction of system-wide operating pressure
Water use bans, restrictions, and rationing